Chromium

Chromium is used in electroplating for glossy chrome plating, hard and black chromium plating, as a catalyst in the chemical industry but also in steel production. Chromium is one of the most important alloying elements for producing rustproof and heat-resistant steels.

Chromium added to carbon steel in percentages usually greater than 11% creates stainless steel. At this percentage and greater, the corrosion resistance of a steel vastly increases, and oxidation of the iron is prevented in many conditions. The iron does not oxidize because the chromium will oxidize first and form a protective layer over the steel. Chromium also helps to improve mechanical properties, even in smaller amounts. It will increase the steel’s strength, hardness, and ability to be heat treated.

  • In Steel (up to 13%): Chromium is a powerful alloying element in steel. It strongly increases the hardenability of steel and markedly improves the corrosion resistance of alloys in oxidizing media. In common alloy steels such as 4340, it has a content of around 1%. In high alloy tool steel, in ranges between 3%-13%.
  • In Stainless Steel (up to 30%): When amounts of chromium around 11% or greater are used, and nickel composition is higher than 8%, austenitic stainless steel is created. The chromium forms a thin film of reaction products that shields the metal substrate from oxidation attack. The protective film (called passive film) is only 1.0-2.0 nm, reducing the corrosion rate to a negligible level. Typical stainless alloys such as 316 have 17% chromium content.
  • In Super Alloys (Up to 50%): Where stainless steels may fail is where nickel-based superalloys come into play. Most HSRA’s contain around 20% of chromium (For example, Inconel 718).
  • In Aluminium Alloys (Up to 0.5%): Chromium is added in small quantities to Aluminium alloys to control the grain structure and prevent recrystallization. It also reduces stress corrosion y and improves toughness. Although it is a small quantity, it is critical for high-quality Aluminium.






Material Group Material Content
S Inconel 657 50%
S Inconel 671 48%
S Inconel 672 45%
S Stellite 100 34%
S Stellite 1 33%
S Stellite 20 33%
S Stellite 19 31%
S Stellite 4 31%
S Allcorr 31%
S Stellite 3 30%
S Duraloy 22H 30%
S Inconel 691 30%
S Inconel 693 30%
S Inconel MA758 30%
S Incoloy 804 29.5%
M AL 29-4C 29%
S Stellite 12 29%
S Haynes 690 29%
S Inconel 690 29%
S Nimonic 91 29%
S F 1537 28%
S Duraloy Super 22H 28%
M 452 27%
M Uranus B28 27%
S HS 21 27%
S Stellite 21 27%
M Duplex 255 26%
M E-Brite Alloy 26%
S Stellite 30 26%
S Stellite 6 26%
S Stellite 7 26%
M 329 25.5%
S X 40 25.5%
S X 45 25.5%
M Duplex F55 25%
M Super duplex 2507 25%
M Super Duplex Zeron 100 25%
M Uranus 47N+ 25%
M Uranus 52N+ 25%
M Uranus 65 25%
M 310 S 25%
M 314 25%
M 446 25%
S Incoloy 803 25%
S HS 31 25%
S Stellite 23 25%
S Stellite 31 (X40) 25%
S Stellite 45 25%
S V-36 25%
S X 63 25%
S Inconel 740 25%
S Nimonic 86 25%
S Stelloy HS27 25%
S Nimonic 101 24.2%
M Super Duplex 4565 24%
M Uranus B66 24%
S HS 30 24%
S Inconel 601 24%
S Inconel 601GC 24%
M Nitronic 50 23.5%
M 309 23.5%
M 332 23%
M Uranus 35N 23%
M Uranus 45N22CrMo 23%
S Haynes 601 23%
M Uranus 45N+ 22.6%
M Duplex 2304 22.5%
S X 50 22.5%
S Inconel 939 22.5%
M Duplex 2102 22%
M Duplex 2205 22%
M Duplex F51 22%
M X20CrNiMo22-5-3 22%
M XM19 22%
S Sanicro 30 22%
S Stellite 188 22%
S Hastelloy C-22 22%
S Hastelloy G 22%
S Hastelloy G-3 22%
S Haynes 188 22%
S Inconel 22 22%
S Inconel 230 22%
S Inconel 603XL 22%
S Inconel 617 22%
S Inconel 622 22%
S Inconel 625 22%
S Inconel 625LCF 22%
S Inconel G 22%
S Inconel G-3 22%
S Inconel HX 22%
M AL-6XN Plus 21.8%
S Hastelloy X 21.8%
S Nimonic PE13 21.8%
S Incoloy 802 21.5%
S MAR-M 302 21.5%
S MAR-M 322 21.5%
S MAR-M 509 21.5%
S Haynes 625 21.5%
S Incoloy 825 21.5%
S Nimonic C22 21.2%
M Duplex 2003 21%
S 21-6-9 21%
S Haynes 556 21%
S Incoloy 800 21%
S Multimet N-155 21%
S S 590 21%
S WI-52 21%
S Incoloy 925 21%
S Inconel 686 21%
S Inconel 725 21%
S Inconel 725HS 21%
S Inconel 800 21%
S Inconel 800H 21%
M REX 734 20.8%
M 904 L 20.5%
M AL-6XN 20.5%
M Uranus B26 6Mo 20.5%
M Uranus B6 20.5%
S Incoloy 801 20.5%
M 311 20%
M 331 20%
M 433 20%
M Uranus B25 6Mo 20%
S 20CB-3 20%
S Armco 20-45-5 20%
S HS 25 20%
S Jetalloy 209 20%
S L 605 20%
S MAR-M 905 20%
S MAR-M 918 20%
S MP35N 20%
S S 816 20%
S Stellite 151 20%
S Stellite 25 (L605) 20%
S Stellite 8 (F75) 20%
S Haynes 25 20%
S Haynes 263 20%
S Haynes 75 20%
S Incoloy 020 20%
S Inconel 050 20%
S Inconel 606 20%
S Inconel MA754 20%
S Jessop G81 20%
S Nimocast 80 20%
S Nimocast 90 20%
S Nimocast PE10 20%
S Nimonic 75 20%
S Nimonic C263 20%
S Nimonic PK31 20%
M 302 19.5%
M 303 19.5%
M 304 19.5%
S M 203 19.5%
S Nimonic 80A 19.5%
S Nimonic 90 19.5%
S Nimonic 95 19.5%
S Waspaloy® 19.5%
M 317 19%
M 318 19%
M 304 L 19%
M 317 L 19%
S L 251 19%
S MP159 19%
S Inconel 718 Plus 19%
S Inconel 718 DA 19%
S Inconel 82 19%
S M-252 19%
S Nimonic PK25 19%
S Refractaloy 26 19%
S René 41 19%
S Udimet 500 19%
S Udimet 520 19%
S Udimet 630 19%
M 330 18.8%
S RA 330 18.5%
S M 204 18.5%
S M 205 18.5%
M 444 18.2%
M 202 18%
M 305 18%
M 321 18%
M 325 18%
M 347 18%
M 348 18%
M 394 18%
M 610 18%
M 611 18%
M 201LN 18%
M 304 LN 18%
M 321 H 18%
M 439 HP 18%
M 441 HP 18%
M Nitronic 60 18%
M Staybrite® 4435NCu 18%
S Incoloy DS 18%
S HS 36 18%
S Inconel 718 18%
S Inconel 718 OP 18%
S Inconel 720 18%
S Nimonic PK33 18%
S Udimet 710 18%
S Udimet 718 18%
S Udimet 720 18%
M 315 17.5%
M 320 17.5%
M 326 17.5%
M 441 17.5%
M 316 LXN 17.5%
M 316 Ti 17.5%
S Armco 18 17.2%
M 284 17%
M 301 17%
M 316 17%
M 434 17%
M 316 L 17%
M 316 LN 17%
M 430F 17%
M 436S 17%
M 440A 17%
M Staballoy AG17 17%
M Uranus S1 4%Si 17%
M X20CrNi17-2 17%
M 17-7PH 17%
S Multimet N-156 17%
M 440C 17%
M Jethete M152 16.8%
M AM 350 16.5%
S Nimocast PD16 16.5%
M 17-4PH 16.3%
M 430 16%
M 431 16%
M X12CrNiWTi16-3 16%
M X17CrNi16-02 16%
S Discaloy 16 16%
S Hastelloy C-4 16%
S Hastelloy S 16%
S Haynes X-750 16%
S Inconel 182 16%
S Inconel 600 16%
S Inconel 604 16%
S Inconel 613 16%
S Inconel 702 16%
S Inconel 706 16%
S Inconel 721 16%
S Inconel 722 16%
S Inconel 738 16%
S Inconel X-750 16%
S Nimonic PE16 16%
M X4CrNiMo16-5-1 15.5%
S GMR 235 15.5%
S GMR 235-D 15.5%
S Hastelloy R235 15.5%
S Haynes 600 15.5%
S Inconel C-276 15.5%
S Nimonic C276 15.5%
M Datalloy 2 15.3%
M 215 15%
M 334 15%
M 15-7PH 15%
S Astroloy 15%
S Hastelloy C-276 15%
S Inconel 600SP 15%
S Inconel 62 15%
S Inconel MA 6000 15%
S Inconel X-751 15%
S Nimonic 105 15%
S Nimonic 115 15%
S R-235 15%
S René 77 15%
S Udimet 700 15%
M 15-5PH 14.8%
S A-286 14.5%
S René 63 14%
S René 80 14%
S René 95 14%
S Discaloy 24 13.5%
S Nimocast 713 13.5%
S W-545 13.3%
M 416 13%
M 425 13%
M 420F 13%
M Bioline 4C27A 13%
M X30Cr13 13%
M 13-8PH 13%
M 420 12.5%
M S240 12.5%
S Incoloy 901 12.5%
S Nimonic 901 12.5%
M 409 Cb 12.3%
P D3 11.00-13.50%
P D2 11.00-13.00%
M 403 12%
M 410 12%
M 455 12%
M 403Cb 12%
M 410S 12%
M Custom 465 12%
M 405 12%
S Greek Ascoloy - 418 12%
S Marval X12 12%
M Jethete X20 11.8%
M X22CrMoV12.1 11.8%
M FV607 11.6%
M 403Cb+ 11.1%
M 409 11%
M H46 11%
S René 104 11%
M Jethete X19 10.8%
P FV535 10.5%
M Jethete M448 10.5%
M X8CrCoNiMo10-6 10.5%
S IN100 10%
S René 100 10%
H Ferrium® S53® 10%
S Nimocast PK24 9.5%
S René 125 8.9%
S MAR-M 247 8.3%
S Hastelloy N 7%
S Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr 6.5%
S TRW VIA 6%
P A7 5.00-5.75%
P A2 4.75-5.50%
P H11 4.75-5.50%
P H13 4.75-5.50%
S Hastelloy W 5%
P P4 4.00-5.25%
P M2 3.75-4.50%
P M3 3.75-4.50%
P M35 3.75-4.50%
P T1 3.75-4.50%
P T4 3.75-4.50%
S Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Cr-4Mo 4%
P H10 3.00-3.75%
P H21 3.00-3.75%
P S7 3.00-3.50%
M Aermet 100 3%
S Inconel 783 3%
S Ti-15-333 3%
M Aermet 310 2.4%
M Aermet 340 2.25%
S Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb 2%
S Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mn-2Cr-0.2Si 2%
H 500 2%
H 521 2%
P 40CMD8 1.75-2.15%
S Hastelloy B 1.5%
H 600 1.5%
P 52100 1.35-1.60%
P S1 1.00-1.80%
P P20 1.40-2.00%
P A6 0.90-1.20%
P P2 0.75-1.25%
P 4130 .80-1.10%
P 4137 .80-1.10%
P 4140 .80-1.10%
P 4142 .80-1.10%
P 4150 .80-1.10%
P 5130 .80-1.10%
P 6150 .80-1.10%
P L6 0.60-1.20%
P 5132 .75-1.00%
P 4340 .70-.90%
P 5140 .70-.90%
P 5120 .70-.90%
P 105WC13 0.40-0.60%
P 8620 .40-.60%
P 8630 .40-.60%
P P21 0.50 max%
S Hastelloy B-2 0.5%
P O1 0.40-0.60%
P A106GB 0.4%
P A234WPB 0.4%
P A333G6 0.4%
P A105 0.3%
P A234WPL6 0.3%
P A350LF2 0.3%
N 5754 0.3%
N 3105 0.2%
N 7003 0.2%
N 7020 0.2%
N 7022 0.2%
N 7175 0.2%
S Invar 42 0.2%
N 2014 0.1%
N 2017 0.1%
N 2024 0.1%
N 2117 0.1%
N 2218 0.1%
N 2224 0.1%
N 3005 0.1%
N 3103 0.1%
N 5005 0.1%
N 5251 0.1%
N 5454 0.1%
N 6063 0.1%
N 6070 0.1%
N 4032 0.1%
N 2091 0.1%
N 8090 0.1%
N 8091 0.1%
N 8093 0.1%
S AL 4750 0.1%
N 2050 0.05%
N 2090 0.05%
N 2198 0.05%
N 7050 0.04%
S Super Invar 32-5 0.03%