Grooving is a type of specific turning operation that cut grooves or forms a narrow cavity of a certain depth on external, internal surfaces, cylinder, cone, or a face of the part (face grooving or trepanning).
Grooving is a machining process performed on CNC lathes, the shape of grooves or the majority of grooves will be related to the cutting tool shape. There are three typical types of grooves: OD grooves, ID grooves and face grooves, which affects the use of the grooving tool.
Grooving tool usually is a carbide insert mounted in a tool holder, can be used to cut external or internal grooves, and many other machining operations. There are multiple designs of grooving inserts, like a single tip or several tips for different configurations. Grooving tools with more tips can reduce costs and improve productivity.
For specific groove types, OD (outer diameter) grooving works best when the tool tip held below the center line slightly. The ID (inner diameter) grooving get optimal performance when the tool top above the center line. In face grooving, the tool needs to be held slightly above center line and move in an axial direction, the clearance radius on the tool must match the radius being cut.
Grooving or recessing operations, sometimes also called necking operations, are often done on workpiece shoulders to ensure the correct fit for mating parts. When a thread is required to run the full length of the part to a shoulder, a groove is usually machined to allow full travel of the nut.