On the Periodic Table of the Elements, iron is a metal that belongs to Group 8 and is a hard, brittle substance. The most common metal, its pure form corrodes quickly when exposed to humid air and high temperatures. Iron is also considered to make up a significant portion of the Earth's core and is the fourth most prevalent metal by weight in the Earth's crust.
Iron is a mystery since it rusts readily despite being the most crucial of all metals. Iron makes up 90% of all metals processed today.
The majority is employed in the production of steel, as well as in manufacturing and civil engineering (reinforced concrete, girders, etc.).
Steel comes in a wide variety of forms with various qualities and applications. Ordinary carbon steel is an alloy of iron, carbon, and trace amounts of additional elements (ranging from 0.1% for mild steel to 2% for high carbon steels).
Carbon steels that include additional additions including nickel, chromium, vanadium, tungsten, and manganese are known as alloy steels. These have a wide range of uses, including bridges, power pylons, bicycle chains, cutting tools, and rifle barrels. They are stronger and more durable than carbon steels.
Stainless steel has a high level of corrosion resistance. At least 10.5% of it is chromium. To increase its strength and workability, other metals like copper, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, and molybdenum are added. It is utilized in jewelry, cutlery, surgical equipment, architecture, and bearings.
3-5% of cast iron is carbon. Pumps, valves, and pipes are made of it. Although less durable than steel, it is more affordable. Iron and its compounds and alloys can be used to make magnets.
In both the Fischer-Tropsch and the Haber processes, which turn syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) into ammonia and liquid fuels, iron catalysts are employed.